## Boolean

Since we have seen that control structure depends on ==test==. Test is nothing but a statement in pyton whose value is either True or False but not together. For this we have a data type in python to represent this, known as boolean data type.

### Assigning Boolean Data

test1 = True
test2 = False
print(test1)
print(test2)

True
False


Many relational operation result in boolean in pyton. For example if we ask following questions?

test1 = 5 >= 0     # True
test2 = 5 < 0      # False
test3 = 6 == 3     # False
test4 = (6/2 == 3) # Ture, use bracket for better looks
print(test1)
print(test2)
print(test3)
print(test4)

True
False
False
True


We can also check some variable has a particular value or not using this idea.

f_name = "Sandeep"
l_name = "Suman"
full_name = f_name + " " + l_name
test1 = (full_name == "Sandeep Suman")
print(test1)

True


### Boolean Operations

Boolean data has three main operation. Others are combination of them

• not: It interchange the value of boolean between True and False.
• or: It takes the logical or operation between two boolean statements.
• and: It takes the logical and operation between two boolean statements.

The result can be summarized in a table as follows

ABnot Anot BA == BA =! BA or BA and B
TFFTFTTF
FTTFFTTF
TTFFTFTT
FFTTTFFF
f_name = "Sandeep"
l_name = "Suman"
full_name = f_name + " " + l_name
test1 = (full_name == "Sandeep Suman") # True
test2 = not test1                      # not True = False
test3 = (full_name == "Sandeep Suman") or (5 <= 0)  # True OR  False = True
test4 = (full_name == "Sandeep Suman") and (5 <= 0) # True AND False = False
print(test1)
print(test2)
print(test3)
print(test4)

True
False
True
False


## Conditional Statements

Till now all the lines of a program run one by one. The control structure will enable us to run a line based on a ==test==.

### General Structure

The structure of general control struructure in python(or in any programming language) will look like the following:

if <test1>:
<statement1>
elif <test2>:
<statement2>
.
.
.
else:
<final statement>


The situation can graphically represented as the following diagram If we look at another perspective we can think this as the following sequnce of tests When the i-th test fails, then program check for (i+1)-th test and so on. If any test say k-th one will pass then the program will run the k-th statement will run and program will exit this control structure. If all the statement fails the program will run the final statement nested under else.

### Implementation

Except the first if statement all other are optional. We can combine as many test as we want.

• One Test: The smallest possible program with if statement can written as following

number = 77
if number > 60:  # colon represent a block in python
print("1st Devision") # each block need to be indented by 4 whitespace

1st Devision


The output is expected. But even if the number $\leq 60$, we will not get any output because the code has no else statement.

number = 55
if number > 60:
print("1st Division")



• If…else: We can combine else to catch the program when test fails as follows

number = 55
if number > 60:
print("1st Division")
else:
print("Not 1st Division")

Not 1st Division

• Elif: More than one test can be used using elif statement.

number = 37
if number >= 60:
print("1st Division")
elif number >= 45:
print("2nd Division")
elif number >= 35:
print("Third Division")
else:
print("Fail")

Third Division


Ex: Change the number to get each type of output.

Ex: Write a program that will give the grade of a student based on marks. You can use any criteria for grade.

1. W3School on If Statements